Multi-Audience Documentation

I've written before about different types of documentation, and the different purposes and goals that each type services. Rather than rehash what documentation is, I'm interested in using this post to think about ways of managing and organizing the documentation process to produce better documentation more easily, with the end goal of being able to increase both maintainability and usability of documentation resources.

Different groups of users--say: administrators, end-users, and developers--interact with technology in overlapping but distinct ways. For some technologies, the differences between the classes of users is not significant and one set of documentation is probably good do every one, plus or minus a very small set. In most other cases, multiple resources are required to be able to address the unique needs of different user groups. Figuring out effective ways to address the different kinds of questions that various groups of users ask, but in a way that makes sense to those users is often the primary challenge in writing documentation.

Having said that, writing different sets of documentation for different users is a lot of work, but given time its not insurmountable. The problem is after six months or more (say,) or a couple of new releases when its time to update the documentation, there are three manuals to update instead of one. This is pretty much horrible. Not only is it more work, but the chances for errors skyrockets, and it's just a mess.

The solution, to my mind, is to figure out ways to only ever have to write one set of documentation. While it might make theoretical sense to split the material into multiple groups, do everything you can to avoid splitting the documentation. Typically, a well indexed text can be used by multiple audiences if its easy enough for users to skip to read only the material they need.

The second class of solutions revolves around taking a more atomic approach to writing documentation. In my own work this manifests in two ways:

  • Setting yourself up for success: understanding how software is going to be updated, or how use is likely to change over time allows you to construct documents that are organized in a way that makes them easy to update. For example: Separate processes from reference material, and split up long processes into logical chunks that you can interlink to remove redundancies.

    Unfortunately, in many cases, it's necessary to learn enough about a project and the different use patterns before you have the background needed to predict what the best structure of the documentation ought to be.

  • Separate structure from content: This is a publishing system requirement, at the core, but using this kind of functionality must be part of the writer's approach. Writers need to build documentation so that the organization (order, hierarchy, etc.) is not implicit in the text, but can be rearranged and reformed as needed. This means writing documentation "atoms" in a structurally generic way. Typically this also leads to better content. As a matter of implementation, documentation resource would require a layer of "meta files" that would provide organization that would be added at build time.

In effect this approach follows what most systems are doing anyway, but in practice we need another processing layer. Sphinx is pretty close in many ways but most document formats and build systems don't really have support for this kind of project organization (or they require enough XML tinkering to render them unfeasible.) Once everything's in place and once all of the atoms exist, producing documents for a different audience is just a matter of compiling a new organization layer and defining an additional output target.

This also produces problems for organization. If content is segregated into hundreds of files for a standard-book-length manual (rather than dozens, say) keeping the files organized is a challenge. If nothing else, build tools will need to do a lot more error checking and hopefully documentation writers will develop standard file organizations and practices that will keep things under control.

Thoughts? Onward and Upward!

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